Greater Amman Highlands
Farming in the Highlands around Amman is popular due to its strategic location: agricultural input supplies, the main domestic markets and the export houses are nearby. The climate in the Jordanian Highlands is characterised by cold winters (5 – 10°C) and hot dry summers (around 30°C). Water and land for farming are becoming scarce and expensive due to the rapid urbanization. Production periods for horticulture crops in this area are from around March until October.

Jordan Valley
Vegetable crops are grown on more than half of the arable land surface in the Jordan valley. The valley is known for its fertile soil and favourable climatological conditions in the Winter. Growers in Jordan Valley once had a unique competitive advantage for being able to continue growing crops during winter time. This position is now under pressure due to export limitations to the neighbouring countries of Syria and Iraq which also acted as a gateway to Europe and Russia. Now, there is also fierce competition during the winter months in the Gulf region due to an increase in the Gulf’s own production. Summer production in July and August is hardly possible due to the very high temperatures in Jordan Valley. In the last two decades some farmers switched to growing date palms in this area which has been relatively successful.

Northern Highlands
The Northern Highlands, around Mafraq, Ramtha and Irbid, was known for production of cereal crops since the Roman Empire. Rainfed agriculture has remained popular but horticultural open field production has gained in popularity in the last 10 years. From a market perspective, the export window has become more favourable than in the Jordan Valley because of the longer growing seasons. A limiting and concerning factor is the severe scarcity of groundwater in this area.