The main squash variety grown in Jordan is a small but very tasty vegetable. It is also known as zucchini or courgette. Squash is in the top three of cultivated crops accounting for over 7% of total cultivated crop production. Squash in Jordan Valley is year round and usually harvested in winter months, and summer production in the Highlands mainly occurs in summer months.
Nearly all squash is grown in open field and young squash transplants are usually protected by UV-sunblock shading nets to protect them from pests. Around one month after planting, the crop has matured enough and tears away the shading net through its own growth. Production of squash in Jordan is very fast and farmers can harvest around 15 times during one season, which requires a large amount of manual labour. Squash in Jordan are prone to harmful insects such as White Fly which can transfer diseases. Another challenge to growing squash is Powdery Mildew which damages the leaf.
For this crop, Holland Horti Support Jordan works together with partner farmers on the below intervention areas.
Improvement of irrigation & fertilizer practices
Based on an extensive analyses of the soil and water quality and current fertilizer practices, Wageningen creates regional fertigation strategies for partner farmers. Farmers at strategic locations for the project have received water gauges to start monitoring their water usage for the piloted areas involved in the project.
Farmer companies implementing the strategy are provided with evidence-based advice on the optimal fertilizer and irrigation use. The desired result is a correct use of irrigation and fertilizers, which will increase crop growth and quality and may contribute to reducing water and fertilizer costs. Local staff also provide a regularly check on the nitrogen content and dissolved salts (EC-rating) of the soil. Part of this strategy is to get a better indication of how much water and fertilizer is being used per greenhouse or dunum in order to develop more efficient fertilizer applications and reduced water use.
Download the factsheet
Many farmers spray plant protection agents such as pesticides and herbicides on the basis of the day of the week. This so called 'calendar spraying' does not keep into account whether it is actually necessary to apply plant protection or if it is more favourable to wait. This practice and a lack of registering the application of plant protection has led to many products being found to exceed maximum residue levels (MRLs) when entering export markets. If MRLs are found to be too high, the exporter receives a warning and the product is destroyed, thereby causing losses all across the value chain. Addressing this issue at the farm level is therefore a priority with both government and private sector.
In order to save costs and reduce the chemical residues, Wageningen Plant Research has developed a monitoring strategy for the application of plant protection agents, and for monitoring the prevalence of the harmful insects Tuta absoluta, (for tomato) and Thrips (for other supported vegetable crops).
Partner farmers are supported on a plant protection strategy and have started:
- Registering their spraying schedule;
- Checking the amount applied with a spraying paper;
- Registering the times of harvesting after spraying plant protection agents, to avoid exceeding maximum residue limits (MRLs);
- Applying pheromone traps and sticky traps for monitoring the prevalence of Tuta Absoluta (tomato only);
- Applying sticky traps for monitoring the prevalence of Thrips (cucumber, sweet pepper, tomato, squash, cabbage);
Wageningen Plant Research and Advance Consulting have developed advice charts on the selection and application of plant protection agents for the different vegetable crops. These advice charts provide guidelines for the selection and responsible use of effective agro-chemicals against the most common pests and diseases in Jordan.
The project is also testing out a mobile fogging system for pesticide application in tunnels with vegetable crops. Advantages of this system are currently being trialled but could lead to:
- A sharp reduction of plant protection agents applied, leading to lower or no residues and reduced costs;
- Reduction in labour costs due to time saving;
- A more even application of the plant protection agent and thus increased effectiveness;